Actualités comptables
Cautionnement : un engagement limité dans le temps ?

Cautionnement : un engagement limité dans le temps ?

Publiée le mercredi 21 juin 2023 à 00h00 dans Actu Juridique

Une banque réclame aux dirigeants d’une société en liquidation judiciaire le paiement d’une dette sociale, en leur qualité de cautions. Mais ces derniers refusent de payer, au motif que la demande de la banque arrive un mois trop tard… Un avis que ne partage pas la créancière ! Qu’en pense le juge ?

Durée du cautionnement : à un mois près ?

Une banque consent un prêt à une société, garanti par le cautionnement de deux dirigeants qui s’engagent pour une période de 108 mois.

La société étant mise en liquidation judiciaire, la banque se tourne vers les cautions pour obtenir le remboursement du prêt...109 mois après la signature de l’engagement de caution !

« Trop tard ! », s’opposent les cautions : la demande de remboursement étant intervenue après la fin de leur engagement, ils ne doivent rien à la banque.

« Faux ! », se défend la banque qui explique que, peu importe que son action contre les cautions soit intervenue après la date limite de leur engagement, ce qui compte c’est bien que la dette à rembourser soit née avant cette limite.

Mais aux yeux des cautions, cette période de 108 mois est bien la preuve de la volonté des parties de limiter dans le temps le droit de poursuite de la banque…

Sauf que le contrat ne prévoyait pas de restriction dans le temps du droit de poursuite contre les cautions, rappelle l’intéressée !

Ce qui convainc le juge : en l’absence de stipulation expresse limitant dans le temps le droit de poursuite de la banque, la demande de remboursement faite aux cautions est tout à fait valable, quand bien même elle arrive un mois après le terme de l’engagement.

La créance étant née pendant la période couverte par l’engagement, la banque est en droit de demander le remboursement du crédit aux cautions.

Cautionnement : un engagement limité dans le temps ? - © Copyright WebLex

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