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Clause d’agrément d’un contrat de bail commercial : cas vécu

Clause d’agrément d’un contrat de bail commercial : cas vécu

Publiée le mardi 02 mai 2023 à 00h00 dans Actu Juridique

Un restaurateur en liquidation judiciaire trouve une entreprise pour acheter son fonds de commerce, bail commercial des locaux compris. Mais cela ne convient pas au bailleur qui se prévaut de la clause d’agrément du contrat de bail. « À tort », selon le liquidateur judiciaire pour qui cette clause n’est pas applicable en cas de vente du fonds de commerce. Qu’en pense le juge ?

Cession de fonds de commerce : avec ou sans clause d’agrément ?

Lorsqu’une entreprise est en liquidation judiciaire, ce n’est plus le débiteur qui a la main sur son activité mais  le liquidateur judiciaire dont la mission est de s’assurer que les intérêts de toutes les parties sont pris en compte. 

Le rôle du liquidateur est de réaliser au mieux l’actif pour apurer le passif, autrement dit, de vendre ce qui peut l’être pour rembourser les dettes.

Dans cette affaire, une SCI signe avec un restaurateur un bail commercial. Malheureusement, l’entreprise est mise en liquidation judiciaire et le bailleur demande la résiliation du contrat de bail. Sauf que le liquidateur obtient l’autorisation de vendre le fonds de commerce à une autre société de restauration. Or le fonds de commerce comprend, notamment, le contrat de bail commercial…

« Non ! », s’oppose le bailleur. Comme le bail commercial signé entre lui et le 1er restaurateur prévoit une clause d’agrément, le bailleur a le droit d’accepter ou de refuser le nouveau locataire qui lui est présenté. Or,  la SCI refuse, en vertu de cette clause d’agrément , ce nouveau restaurateur comme locataire. 

« Impossible ! », selon le liquidateur qui indique que cette clause s’applique à la cession du bail commercial. Sauf qu’ici, il est question de la cession d’un fonds de commerce…qui comprend le bail ! Ce qui change tout…

« Ce qui ne change rien », tranche le juge en faveur de la SCI en rappelant le principe : même en cas de liquidation judiciaire, le contrat de bail doit s’appliquer, sauf exception. Par conséquent, la clause d’agrément est applicable en cas de cession de bail…mais aussi en cas de cession de fonds qui comprend ledit bail ! La SCI a donc tout à fait le droit de s’opposer au candidat locataire…

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